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2013.04.20

考えさせる教育

NHKの「ニュース深読み」で「脱ゆとり教育はどこへ行く」というのがあっていて、「考えさせる授業」という事でフィンランドの事例が紹介されていた。

正直、「ゆとり」と若い世代を馬鹿にする風潮が嫌いだ。
一応ゆとり世代の一寸前の世代だが、そう詰め込みされていた感じは無い。まぁ、大学の時に「ゆとり世代」の高校の授業に触れる機会があり、物理が理科Iから消えていたのには唖然としたものだが、自分の世代だって、学校の授業なんて、受験レベルから言えばお遊びみたいなもんだった。
私が通った高校は一応進学校で、多少なりとも受験に効率化された授業を行ってはいたが、自分で買える参考書のレベルで比較しても、内容は緩くてお笑い種だったものだ。
本気で進学を考えてる人間は、学校の授業がどんなレベルだろうが関係無しに、自力で(もしくは親の出資で塾なぞに行って)高度な勉強をしているだろう。
そうしない人間が今「ゆとり」と呼ばれているのではないか?こういう人は、詰め込み教育の時代だってかなりの率で居た筈。
「自分で考えない」?「言われた事しかしない」?前者は戦中戦後大部分の日本人がそうだったのではないか?後者は、私の一寸前の世代だって言われていた事だ。
と言うか、アメリカのやり方が日本の子供に浸透しただけだろう。

閑話休題。
NHKの番組に話は戻って。

考えさせる授業、大いに結構だ。自力で考える事と、それを表現する方法について、日本人は能力が乏しいというのは、前々から言われてきた事で、私としてもそれは改善した方がいいと思う。ひたすら教科書の内容を黒板に板書し、それをノートに書き写させる「だけ」の日本の大部分の授業は、無意味だと思っていた。

で、番組ではフィンランドの国語の授業を模して実演してみせた。
ピカソについての授業だった様だが、最初はキーワードだけ提示し、次に挿絵を見せて色々想像させ(ブレインストーミングの如く)、最後に教科書本文を見せるというものだった。
#更に補足で、連想したキーワードの関連図を作成させるという、プロジェクトマネージャー関連でやる様な事もやらせているとの事だった。

番組で取りまとめのアナウンサー女史も指摘していたのだが・・・う~ん・・・これ、「国語」の授業でやるべき事か???
色々考えさせるというのはいい事だが、それは「答えが決まっていない」ものについてやるべきであって、「答えが決まっている」ものについてやった所で、回答が誤っていたら単なる徒労にしかすぎず、生徒自身が考えたくなくなるのではないか???
当の「フィンランドの授業」にも疑問が残った。色々な解釈を生徒から引き出す・・・割には、結局教科書の本文を見せるのは、矛盾ではないか?結局正解は固定だ。

考える、というのは、目的が無ければできないだろう。その目的が特に提示されずに唯「考えてみよう」というのは、無理な話ではないか?
#まぁ、芸術分野では話は別だが。
#目的が曖昧なので、明確化する方法を教える、というのなら、それはそれで意味があるとは思うが。

こういうのは、それこそ「ゆとりの時間」のコマにこそやるべき事だと思う。授業名は「思考方法」とでも変えれば良かろう。より合理的/多彩な事を考えた生徒に評価を与えるとでもすれば、生徒もやる気が出るだろう。「結論ではなく過程に意味がある」というお得意の言葉は、こういうやり方にこそ一番マッチする。
理系の分野の方が適していると思うが、文系だって適用できるだろう。
歴史、経済、小説の解釈当、正解の無い命題は沢山ある。
授業中の先生の小話を一コマに広げた様なものだ。これこそ設けるべき「ゆとり」ではないか?
#例えば、歴史ならば、世界で横断的に見て、特定の時代が何故そういう流れになったのかを考えさせる。数学ならば、微分積分が何故作られたのかを教え、応用はどんな事ができるかを考えさせる。こういう思考方法は、学校を卒業してからも絶対役に立つ。第一、楽しい。

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